A Comparative Study of 2 Strategies namely Concept Mapping &
Bluetooth technology in computers and WAP ( Wireless Applicatio Protocol ) in electronics and human genome in medical science are just a few of the numerous advances that have taken place
recently. These advances indicate that science plays a vital
role in modern society. Hence it becomes essential for the
science educationist to enhance meaningful learning, as today's
students are future architects of modern society. Hence the investigator has adopted Concept Mapping as one of the
strategies to introduce the concepts Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC for which Nobel Prize has been awarded
during the year 2000.
A Concept Map is a schematic device for representing a set of
concept meanings embedded in a framework of propositions. In a
Concept Map, the more general, more inclusive concepts should be
at the apex of the Concept Map, with progressively more
specific, less inclusive concepts arranged below them. Since the
concepts are arranged hierarchically, meaningful learning
precedes more easily as new concepts or concept meanings are
subsumed under broader more inclusive concepts.
In the present study the investigator introduced the 2 concepts
namely Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC through two different
methods namely Concept Mapping Method and Lecture Method. The XI
standard students of N.K.T.National Girls' Higher Secondary
School, India (where the investigator is working) studying under
State Board syllabus formed the sample. The class was divided
into two groups of 20 students each and was treated as Control
Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG). Two B.Ed. trainees
(K.R.Kavitha and N.V.Jaya Bharathi) of N.K.T.National College of
Education carried the experimental part of the research study
developed by the investigator. Ms N.V.Jayabharathi taught the
two concepts to Control Group through Lecture Method while
Ms.K.R.Kavitha taught the same concepts to Experimental Group at
the same time through Concept Mapping Method.
Objectives of the Study
1.To find the effectiveness of Concept Mapping strategy over
Lecture Method on achievement in Physics of XI standard students.
2.To study the effect of Scientific Attitude on achievement in
Physics of students learning through Lecture Method.
3. To study the effect of Scientific Attitude on achievement in
Physics of students learning through Concept Mapping Method.
A pre-test was administered for both the groups to assess the
students' initial knowledge. Then the two concepts were
introduced by two different methods to respective groups. Finally
a post-test was administered to both the groups. The
Experimental Design, which is pre-test- treatment - post-test is
shown in Table 1
where SS means Sample Strength, TM means Teaching Method, AT means
Achievement Test in Physics, C.M.M means Concept Mapping Method,
L.M. means Lectire Method
The two B.Ed. trainees carried the research programme
simultaneously at the same time and were given one hour to
complete the programme. By simultaneous implementation of the
programme any error due to fatigue etc is neglected. A Science
Attitude Scale developed by Dr. Mrs. Avinash Grewal was also
administered at the end of the session.
The tools used in the study are
1.Achievement Test developed by the investigator
The Achievement Test consisting of 25 multiple-choice questions
was developed by the investigator and each question carries one
mark. The Achievement Test served as both pre-test and
post-test. The investigator utilized the Scientific Attitude
Scale (SAS) developed by Dr. Mrs. Avinash Grewal to determine
the attitudes of XI standard students participating in the
research programme. The Science Attitude Scale (SAS) consisted
of 20 items where 10 positive items (S.No
2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) and 10 negative items (S.No.
1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19) are present.
Each of the 10 positive items on the scale is assigned a weight
ranging from 4 (strongly agree ) to 0 (strongly disagree). In
the case of 10 negative items the scale scoring is reversed
ranging from 0 (strongly agree) to 4(strongly disagree). The
attitude score of a subject is the sum total of scores in all
twenty items in the scale. Thus a maximum of eighty scores can
be obtained by the subject.
Seven Concept Maps pertaining to the 2 concepts under
consideration were developed by the investigator.
A Lesson Plan according to which the concepts were introduced by
Lecture Method was also developed by the investigator.
The analysis was performed by teaching the two concepts to two
groups namely Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG)
through Lecture Method and Concept Mapping Method. Before
commencing the lesson the pre-test was given and after the
lesson was taught the post-test was again administered.
The Gain Score of Lecture Method is given by GL = LPO - LPR
where GL is gain score of Lecture Method LPO is post-test score
of Lecture Method LPR is pre-test score of Lecture Method
The Gain Score of Concept Mapping Method is given by GC = CPO - CPR
where GC is gain score of Concept Mapping Method CPO is
post-test score of Concept Mapping Method CPR is pre-test score
of Concept Mapping Method
Analysis of Critical Ratios
Critical Ratios were calculated to test the significance of
difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in Lecture
Method and Concept Mapping Method.
Critical Ratio between the
pre-test and post-test scores in Lecture Method
The Critical Ratio calculated in respect of pre-test and
post-test scores of Control Group taught by Lecture Method is
given in Table 2.
Test MeanS.D.?t? value L.S.
Pretest 8.151.27610.49 P<0.01
Where L.S stand for Level of Significance.
The results of Table 2 indicate that there is significant
difference between the post-test and pre-test scores of students
of Control Group taught by Lecture Method. Since the post-test
score is greater than the pre-test score we can conclude that
the performance of students is significantly higher than their
performance in pre-test.
Critical Ratio between the pre-test and post-test scores in
Concept Mapping Method
The Critical Ratio calculated in respect of pre-test scores of
Experimental Group taught by Concept Mapping Method is given in
TestMeanS.D.?t? value L.S
Pretest9.40.8 19.60 P<0.01
The results of Table 3 indicate that there is significant
difference between the post-test and pre-test scores of students
of Experimental Group taught by Concept Mapping Method. Since
the post-test score is greater than the pre-test score, we can
conclude that the performance of students in post-test is
significantly higher than their performance in pre-test.
Analysis of Gain Scores
The Critical Ratio calculated in respect of Gain Scores of two
groups subjected to two different methods of teaching is
presented in Table 4
GroupsMeanS.D.?t? value L.S
where L.M. stand for Lecture Method C.M.M. stand for Concept
The results indicate that there is significant difference
between the gain scores of two groups namely Lecture Method and
Concept Mapping Method. Since the gain score of Concept Mapping
Method is significantly greater than the gain score of Lecture
Method it may be concluded that teaching through Concept Mapping
strategy has helped students in the Experimental Group to
achieve high scores in the test.
Coefficient of Correlation 'r' between the gain scores of
Lecture Method and Science Attitude Scale
The product moment coefficient of correlation 'r' calculated in
respect of gain scores of Lecture Method and Science Attitude
Scale (SAS) scores is given in Table 5.
Scores MeanS.D. r
where G.S.L.M. stand for Gain Score of Lecture Method
The high value of positive correlation indicate that Science
Attitude and performance of students are positively correlated.
That is, students with better attitude in science score better
marks in science.
Coefficient of correlation r between the gain scores of Concept
Mapping Method and Science Attitude Scale
The product moment coefficient of correlation r calculated in
respect of gain scores of Concept Mapping Method and Science
Attitude Scale is given in Table 6
Scores Mean S.D. r
C.M.M. 10.3 1.7920.8049
SASScore 66.4 3.904
C.M.M. stand for Concept Mapping Method
The high value of r indicate that Science Attitude and
performance of students are positively correlated. That is
students with better attitude in science score better marks in
The findings of the study
1.The gain scores of students taught through Concept Mapping
Method is significantly higher than the gain score of students
taught through Lecture Method.
2.The students with better attitudes in Science have scored
better marks in their Achievement Test in Control Group taught
by Lecture Method
3.The students with better attitudes in Science have scored
better marks in their Achievement Test in Experimental Group
taught by Concept Mapping Method
4.It was observed that the time factor involved in teaching /
learning through Concept Mapping Method was less than the time
taken for Lecture Method. Hence considerable time could be saved
apart from enhancing teaching / learning through Concept Mapping
Garrett. Henry E & R.S. Woodworth, (1979). Statistics in
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Novak, Joseph D & D.Bob Gowin (1984) Learning How to Learn.
England : Cambridge University Press.
Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC Win Nobel. Press release of
the Hindu, Oct 19, 2000
About the Author
The author is a science educationalist as she has done M.Sc. in
Physics and Ph.D. in Science Education. She is a gold medalist
as she has obtained I Rank during M.Phil (Education) of
University of Madras and is a First Prize Winner of the BOLT
(Broad Outlook Learner Teacher) Award organized by Air India,
The Hindu & Dina Malar and is teaching Physics for Higher
Secondary classes in Chennai, India.