Bluetooth technology in computers and WAP ( Wireless Applicatio Protocol ) in electronics and human genome in medical science are just a few of the numerous advances that have taken place

recently. These advances indicate that science plays a vital

role in modern society. Hence it becomes essential for the

science educationist to enhance meaningful learning, as today's

students are future architects of modern society. Hence the investigator has adopted Concept Mapping as one of the

strategies to introduce the concepts Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC for which Nobel Prize has been awarded

during the year 2000.

Concept Map

A Concept Map is a schematic device for representing a set of

concept meanings embedded in a framework of propositions. In a

Concept Map, the more general, more inclusive concepts should be

at the apex of the Concept Map, with progressively more

specific, less inclusive concepts arranged below them. Since the

concepts are arranged hierarchically, meaningful learning

precedes more easily as new concepts or concept meanings are

subsumed under broader more inclusive concepts.

Present Study

In the present study the investigator introduced the 2 concepts

namely Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC through two different

methods namely Concept Mapping Method and Lecture Method. The XI

standard students of N.K.T.National Girls' Higher Secondary

School, India (where the investigator is working) studying under

State Board syllabus formed the sample. The class was divided

into two groups of 20 students each and was treated as Control

Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG). Two B.Ed. trainees

(K.R.Kavitha and N.V.Jaya Bharathi) of N.K.T.National College of

Education carried the experimental part of the research study

developed by the investigator. Ms N.V.Jayabharathi taught the

two concepts to Control Group through Lecture Method while

Ms.K.R.Kavitha taught the same concepts to Experimental Group at

the same time through Concept Mapping Method.

Objectives of the Study

1.To find the effectiveness of Concept Mapping strategy over

Lecture Method on achievement in Physics of XI standard students.

2.To study the effect of Scientific Attitude on achievement in

Physics of students learning through Lecture Method.

3. To study the effect of Scientific Attitude on achievement in

Physics of students learning through Concept Mapping Method.

Data Collection

A pre-test was administered for both the groups to assess the

students' initial knowledge. Then the two concepts were

introduced by two different methods to respective groups. Finally

a post-test was administered to both the groups. The

Experimental Design, which is pre-test- treatment - post-test is

shown in Table 1

Experimental Design

Table 1

GroupS.S.pretest T.M.Posttest

EG20A.T C.M.M.A.T

CG20A.T L.M.A.T

where SS means Sample Strength, TM means Teaching Method, AT means

Achievement Test in Physics, C.M.M means Concept Mapping Method,

L.M. means Lectire Method

The two B.Ed. trainees carried the research programme

simultaneously at the same time and were given one hour to

complete the programme. By simultaneous implementation of the

programme any error due to fatigue etc is neglected. A Science

Attitude Scale developed by Dr. Mrs. Avinash Grewal was also

administered at the end of the session.

The tools used in the study are

1.Achievement Test developed by the investigator

2.Science

Attitude Scale

3.Concept Maps

4.Lesson Plan

Achievement Test

The Achievement Test consisting of 25 multiple-choice questions

was developed by the investigator and each question carries one

mark. The Achievement Test served as both pre-test and

post-test. The investigator utilized the Scientific Attitude

Scale (SAS) developed by Dr. Mrs. Avinash Grewal to determine

the attitudes of XI standard students participating in the

research programme. The Science Attitude Scale (SAS) consisted

of 20 items where 10 positive items (S.No

2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) and 10 negative items (S.No.

1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19) are present.

Scoring

Each of the 10 positive items on the scale is assigned a weight

ranging from 4 (strongly agree ) to 0 (strongly disagree). In

the case of 10 negative items the scale scoring is reversed

ranging from 0 (strongly agree) to 4(strongly disagree). The

attitude score of a subject is the sum total of scores in all

twenty items in the scale. Thus a maximum of eighty scores can

be obtained by the subject.

Concept Maps

Seven Concept Maps pertaining to the 2 concepts under

consideration were developed by the investigator.

Lesson Plan

A Lesson Plan according to which the concepts were introduced by

Lecture Method was also developed by the investigator.

Data Analysis

The analysis was performed by teaching the two concepts to two

groups namely Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG)

through Lecture Method and Concept Mapping Method. Before

commencing the lesson the pre-test was given and after the

lesson was taught the post-test was again administered.

The Gain Score of Lecture Method is given by GL = LPO - LPR

where GL is gain score of Lecture Method LPO is post-test score

of Lecture Method LPR is pre-test score of Lecture Method

The Gain Score of Concept Mapping Method is given by GC = CPO - CPR

where GC is gain score of Concept Mapping Method CPO is

post-test score of Concept Mapping Method CPR is pre-test score

of Concept Mapping Method

Analysis of Critical Ratios

Critical Ratios were calculated to test the significance of

difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in Lecture

Method and Concept Mapping Method.

Critical Ratio between the

pre-test and post-test scores in Lecture Method

The Critical Ratio calculated in respect of pre-test and

post-test scores of Control Group taught by Lecture Method is

given in Table 2.

Table 2

Test MeanS.D.?t? value L.S.

Pretest 8.151.27610.49 P<0.01

Posttest 14.952.519

Where L.S stand for Level of Significance.

The results of Table 2 indicate that there is significant

difference between the post-test and pre-test scores of students

of Control Group taught by Lecture Method. Since the post-test

score is greater than the pre-test score we can conclude that

the performance of students is significantly higher than their

performance in pre-test.

Critical Ratio between the pre-test and post-test scores in

Concept Mapping Method

The Critical Ratio calculated in respect of pre-test scores of

Experimental Group taught by Concept Mapping Method is given in

Table 3.

Table 3

TestMeanS.D.?t? value L.S

Pretest9.40.8 19.60 P<0.01

Posttest 19.72.147

The results of Table 3 indicate that there is significant

difference between the post-test and pre-test scores of students

of Experimental Group taught by Concept Mapping Method. Since

the post-test score is greater than the pre-test score, we can

conclude that the performance of students in post-test is

significantly higher than their performance in pre-test.

Analysis of Gain Scores

The Critical Ratio calculated in respect of Gain Scores of two

groups subjected to two different methods of teaching is

presented in Table 4

Table 4

GroupsMeanS.D.?t? value L.S

L.M6.81.3646.675P<0.01

C.M.M.10.31.792

where L.M. stand for Lecture Method C.M.M. stand for Concept

Mapping Method

The results indicate that there is significant difference

between the gain scores of two groups namely Lecture Method and

Concept Mapping Method. Since the gain score of Concept Mapping

Method is significantly greater than the gain score of Lecture

Method it may be concluded that teaching through Concept Mapping

strategy has helped students in the Experimental Group to

achieve high scores in the test.

Coefficient of Correlation 'r' between the gain scores of

Lecture Method and Science Attitude Scale

The product moment coefficient of correlation 'r' calculated in

respect of gain scores of Lecture Method and Science Attitude

Scale (SAS) scores is given in Table 5.

Table 5

Scores MeanS.D. r

G.S.L.M.6.81.3640.9181

SAS Score5.85.598

where G.S.L.M. stand for Gain Score of Lecture Method

The high value of positive correlation indicate that Science

Attitude and performance of students are positively correlated.

That is, students with better attitude in science score better

marks in science.

Coefficient of correlation r between the gain scores of Concept

Mapping Method and Science Attitude Scale

The product moment coefficient of correlation r calculated in

respect of gain scores of Concept Mapping Method and Science

Attitude Scale is given in Table 6

Table 6

Scores Mean S.D. r

C.M.M. 10.3 1.7920.8049

SASScore 66.4 3.904

where

C.M.M. stand for Concept Mapping Method

The high value of r indicate that Science Attitude and

performance of students are positively correlated. That is

students with better attitude in science score better marks in

science.

The findings of the study

1.The gain scores of students taught through Concept Mapping

Method is significantly higher than the gain score of students

taught through Lecture Method.

2.The students with better attitudes in Science have scored

better marks in their Achievement Test in Control Group taught

by Lecture Method

3.The students with better attitudes in Science have scored

better marks in their Achievement Test in Experimental Group

taught by Concept Mapping Method

4.It was observed that the time factor involved in teaching /

learning through Concept Mapping Method was less than the time

taken for Lecture Method. Hence considerable time could be saved

apart from enhancing teaching / learning through Concept Mapping

Method.

References

Books

Garrett. Henry E & R.S. Woodworth, (1979). Statistics in

Psychology and Education. Hyderabad : International Book Bureau

Novak, Joseph D & D.Bob Gowin (1984) Learning How to Learn.

England : Cambridge University Press.

Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC Win Nobel. Press release of

the Hindu, Oct 19, 2000

Websites

http://www.nobel.se/announcement/2000/phyinfoen.html

About the Author

The author is a science educationalist as she has done M.Sc. in

Physics and Ph.D. in Science Education. She is a gold medalist

as she has obtained I Rank during M.Phil (Education) of

University of Madras and is a First Prize Winner of the BOLT

(Broad Outlook Learner Teacher) Award organized by Air India,

The Hindu & Dina Malar and is teaching Physics for Higher

Secondary classes in Chennai, India.