Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, Upper and Lower Egypt, or the two lands. The first was founded in Lower Egypt, with Botu as its capital, the Papyrus as its sign, and the snake as its symbol. The Southern Kingdom had Nekhen as its capital, and the Lotus as its sign. King Narmer was the first to unite Upper and Lower Egypt
giving birth to Egypt in 3100 B. c & laying the foundation for the first pharaonic dynasty ,which is the beginning of the first Egyptian Dynasty 0.
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He was the first king of the two lands wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt (looks like a bowling pin), and the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. . His rule marked the beginning of written history and the era of dynasties, which followed in succession until the 30th Dynasty. The Egyptian Dynasty ended with the suicide of Cleopatra, and the Roman army under Octavian taking Egypt in 30 BC.